Fisheries Economic Impact Studies - Economic Impact of Recreational Fishing in Victoria July 1997 - Fisheries Victoria.
January 2002: Recreational fisherman Nariel Creek. Recreational fishing is worth millions of dollars to North Eastern Victoria’s economy. It is threatened by landuses which increase sediment flows into creeks in the region such as forestry and cattle. According to the ‘Fisheries Economic Impact Studies. Economic Impact of Recreational Fishing in Victoria July 1997 by Fisheries Victoria’ the economic worth of recreational fishing in Victoria’s North East was worth $171 million per year.
The following quotes are taken directly from the Fisheries Victoria report;
p1 “ Results from the study indicate that in the last year an estimated $1.037 billion was spent on recreational fishing activities in Victoria . . . this represents approximately $200 spent per kilogram of fish caught and kept. The contribution of the recreational fishing sector (including support industries) to the Victorian economy (Gross State Product) is estimated to be $1.265 billion per annum, and the provision of fishing related goods and services generates approximately 27,000 jobs annually . . . Melbourne region made the largest contribution to Gross Regional Product ($765 million per annum), North East ($171 million), South East ($144 million), South West ($106 million), North West ($76 million)”.
p9 “Allocation of recorded expenditure items as fishing expenditure; Fishing Tackle Bait 0.7%, travel, accomodation, fuel, food and drink, hire fees 2.7%, fishing equipment and specialised clothing 12%, Boats, 4WD’s etc 83.4%”
p23 “the north east and south east regions attracted the highest proporation of fishers who made overnight trips:
p26 Estimate of gross expenditure on recreational fishing in Victoria
A forest is more than just trees. It is an incredibly diverse series of ecosystems connected by a countless array of complex interactions. And one fact often overlooked by the timber industry and conservationists alike is that forests are vital for the long term health of our water resources. Poorly planned plantation and native forest harvesting can have serious impacts on our waterways.
"The major single cause throughout the world of the extinctions of populations of fish (and indeed most other species of both plants and animals) is the destruction of habitat". Dr Peter Maitland. A stream is completely dependent on the surrounding land and vegetation in its catchment and is consequently subjected to the effects of actions carried out there.
A stream is a system of habitats linked together in a continuous one-way flow of water, so the actions on a stream at one point can also affect areas downstream. The majority of native freshwater fishes occur in rivers and streams which form most of the freshwater acquatic habitats in Victoria.
There are an enourmous number of invertebrates (animals without backbones) that live in streams. These include Mayflies, stoneflies, caddisflies, alderflies, craneflies, blackflies, dragonflies, aquatic worms, snails, small spiders (called watermites), crustacea such as yabbies, nematodes, flatworms, freshwater sponges and freshwater crabs. Many invertebrates such as mayflies hatch from eggs in the water. The invertebrates are found mainly attached to and amongst snags, leaf packs and rocks. Leaves falling into the stream are eaten directly by invertebrates known as "shredders", such as some stonefly and caddisfly larvae, which shred or bite the softer parts of the plant material. Material not consumed by the shredders is colonised by microorganisms such as aquatic fungi and bacteria and broken down to progressively smaller sizes. Freshwater algae also colonise the leaves and twigs. Invertebrates known as "scrapers", such as some mayflies and snails feed directly on the fungi and algae. As the organic material is broken down, the resultant finer material then serves as a food source for other invertebrates which filter material from the water (filter-feeders), or collect deposited material on stream beds (detritus-feeders).
These animals, in turn are preyed upon by other invertebrates and animals such as fish and platypus. Fish are then a food source for water birds and other fish-eating animals. Insects and other terrestrial invertebrates which live in the riparian vegetation and fall into rivers and streams form a substantial part of the diet of many native and introduced fish species.
Newly emerged mayfly adults need bushes near the stream to rest. Trees protect the swarms of mayflies from wind. Other material from trees such as leaf litter, is utilised by blackfish larvae/juveniles as nursery grounds, providing their food source and shelter. As well as providing instream habitat (such as fallen logs, branches, bark, leaves and submerged tree roots etc), the root systems of riparian (riverside) vegetation bind streamside substrate, preventing erosion and hence high turbidity levels and increased siltation. Without streamside vegetation the entire food chain is at risk.
As freshwater ecosystems get silted up, there is a decrease in diversity of macroinvertebrates, often decreasing to just populations of worms which can survive in the silt bed. Problem fish such as European Carp are best suited for seeking out these worms as Carp have a bottom grubbing feeding style.
The major effect of sedimentation is the blanketing of the stream bed (substratum) and the filling of pools and scour holes. Clogging of the stream bed removes spaces between particles which are used as rearing and habitat areas by juvenile fish, small species and stream invertebrates. The eggs of species such as Macquarie Perch (Macquaria australasica) which are deposited in gravel substrate are liable to smothering by sediment. Silt clogs mayfly gills and smothers the bed of the river (where they live) and kills algae growing on rocks (their food). Deposited silt can suffocate and kill Blackfish eggs. High turbidity levels can be lethal to blackfish larvae and juveniles. Even adults have been observed dying in highly turbid river water, their gills clogged up with fine sediment. Heavy siltation can also smother habitat, spawning grounds and food sources and can move into estuaries, smothering fish breeding grounds, particulary after periods of high rainfall..
Adult blackfish for instance live in submerged hollow logs or amongst a clump of logs/branches (called snags) or submerged tree roots. Hollow logs are used for breeding which occurs in early summer. A female and a male pair up, the female laying several hundred sticky eggs which attach in layers to the bottom of the inside of the log. Only about 500 eggs nearly 4mm in diameter are laid by a 300mm female. The eggs are then guarded by the male (not the female), who also fans away any silt which may settle on the eggs. Depositing eggs in less suitable areas such as sediment covered logs will lead to reduced egg and larvae survival.
"The most common environmental change caused by land use activities in the catchments is an increase in sediment input to rivers and streams. Increased levels of sediment can adversely affect all aspects of freshwater ecosystems by reducing water quality and degrading or destroying habitat. Increased turbidity or suspended sediment can have adverse physical, physiological and behavioural effects on stream-dwelling flora and fauna". Page 200 Gippsland - Comprehensive Regional Assessment - September 1999. Published by the joint Commonwealth and Victorian Regional Forest Agreement (RFA) Steering Committee.
Sediment (particles of material suspended in the water column or deposited in the stream bed) is a natural component of rivers and streams. Natural erosion and decay processes constantly deliver sediment to streams, so that all waterways carry some level of sediment. This is normally low in upland streams, but can be relatively higher in lowland rivers. Artificially increased loads of sediment, resulting from human activity, can have adverse effects on both the physical form of the river, and aquatic flora and fauna.
Timber harvesting is one human activity that increases sediment levels in river and streams. Depending on soil types, alot of sediment can be washed into rivers and streams during periods of high rainfall when overland flow is generated.
January 2002: Dunstans Log Road. Recent road widening to accomodate increasing numbers of log trucks using this road. Many of these gully lines flow west into Nariel Creek, approximately 5km away. These gullies are likely to be heavily impacted by a build up of silt associated with road widening. In turn this sediment could impact on activities such as recreational fishing.
The Cooperative Research Centre for Catchment Hydrology (CRCCH) has recently concluded that the main source of sediment from timber harvesting is i) unsealed roads, ii) snig tracks, iii) log landings, iv) general harvesting areas. In regards to roads and tracks “more than 80% of the rain that falls onto these surfaces is converted to runoff. These large volumes of water transport sediments through the landscape” and “Only about 10-20% of rainfall is converted to runoff in general harvesting areas, limiting sediment transport to short distances” This difference is attributed to the fact that general harvesting areas retain a high percentage of vegetation and contact cover meaning that water accumulates more slowly.
The CRCCH also found that “*Sediment concentrations in road runoff were between 5 and 8 times higher on well-used roads than abandoned ones. *Roads with higher intensity traffic have greater volumes of loose material available at the surface. This is replenished after each rainfall event by continuing vehicle usage. *Roads used infrequently or abandoned have little available sediment and, in the absence of traffic are minor sources of sediment.”
January 2002: Dunstans Log Road. Recent road widening to accomodate increasing numbers of log trucks using this road. This photo highlights very poor road ‘improvements’ with road batters gouged directly into embankment. This in turn will lead to erosion.
The key is to minimise the impact of sediment delivery pathways. For instance the CRCCH found in the Cuttagee Creek Catchment in NSW “has an additional 10km of stream channels or gullies due to gully inititiation at road drainage outlets and because of these new channels, some 31% of the natural stream network now receives runoff and associated pollutants from road drainage outlets. 83% of gully initiation occurred at relief culverts draining cut-and-fill roads and that the combination of large contributing road length and steep hillslope gradient results in erosion and gully formation at the road-drainage outlet”. Thus it is crucial that roads must be sited away from streams. According to the CRCCH “best management practices have to be applied in every logged forest to manage these sources and pathways. These practices include:
*establishing riparian buffer-strips of variable width,
*harvesting alternate coupes,
*siting and designing roads and road crossings to minimise sediment input and
*restricting logging activities in relation to coupe slope and soil type.
THE CODE OF FOREST PRACTICES
p18 "The Victorian Parliament ratified the Code of Forest Practices for Timber Production (the Code) in May 1989 in accordance with section 55 of the Conservation, Forests and Lands Act 1987."
p18 "Since its implementation in 1989, several reviews of aspects of the Code have been undertaken (Victorian Auditor-General 1993; CNR 1995a, CNR 1995b, CNR 1995c; O'Shaughnessy 1995). Revision No. 2 (NRE 1996a) of the Code was developed by NRE involving scientific review and community consultation. This included a review of the Code by CSIRO based on scientific evidence, experience and observation of its effectiveness in achieving environmental care. The revised Code was ratified by Parliament in December 1996."
p19 "In general, the Code is implemented at a local level through a set of regional prescriptions. These detailed prescriptions take account of local conditions such as climate, forest type, topography, elevation, soil type, and various management activities. They must be consistent with the Code, based on relevant scientific input, and reviewed periodically. Regional prescriptions for the Forest Management Areas in Gippsland region were reviewed in 1997-98 to incorporate the requirements of the revised Code (NRE 1996a)."
p104 "The Code of Forest Practices for Timber Production (Code) requires that water quality and yield are protected in water supply catchments. . . Where Special Area Plans do not exist or specify minimum standards, the Code or regional prescriptions provide minimum requirements for seasonal closures, stream buffers, filter strips and slope limitations. Minimum widths for stream buffers and fliter strips are a function of the soil type, stream class and slope, and can vary from 10 to 40m depnding on soil permeability and potential for overland flow".
Increased levels of sediment can adversely affect all aspects of freshwater ecosystems by: reducing light penetration, increased loads of nutrients and toxic substances attached to sediment particles, clogging gills and causing asphyxiation, causing illness and reduced growth rates or death through ingestion, reduced visibility, filling spaces in the river bed and destroying important habitat, working its way into the stream bed, interfering with feeding by organisms that filter food from the water column, destroying attachment sites for animals and eggs, smothering plants.
Erosion often liberates soluble nutrients, but also sediment particles have nutrient molecules attached, which ultimately pollute the river system. Logging also effects water yield which in turn effects the temperature of the water, thereby placing further pressure on species dependent on fresh, clean water. Reduced streamflows may exacerbate water quality problems. In regards to the Otways, Otways Ranges Environment Network found that logging on an 80 year rotation basis would reduce water yield by 25 to 33% because young trees require large amounts of water to grow. In April 1998 the (CRCCH) published the results of a five year analysis of water yields in Mountain Ash forest catchments. The study concluded that old growth Mountain Ash forests have almost twice the water yield of young regrowth forests resulting from clearfelling or wildlife regeneration.
p109-110 "O'Shaughnessy and Associates (1995) noted that roads and tracks might present a greater hazard than timber harvesting with regard to sedimentation of streams. Preliminary results of monitoring in the Traralgon Creek catchment by Sadek et al. (1998) showed that the existence of unsealed roads and associated landslides in forested catchments have an impact on stream turbidity and sediments. The research by Grayson et al. (1993) and work by Haydon et al. (1991) also suggests that there is a positive relationship between the frequency of road use and the production of coarse sediment and total sediments. This highlights the need for high standards of road construction and management to help prevent the entry of runoff into streams (Haydon et al. 1991). Also Dargavel . . . "
January 2002: Dunstans Log Road. Recent road widening to accomodate increasing numbers of log trucks using this road. This photo highlights very poor road ‘improvements’ with road batters gouged directly into embankment. This in turn will lead to erosion.
p110 "The literature demonstrates that different silvicultural systems have different impacts on water yield and quality within harvesting areas . . . Hydrological resaerch in the Central Highlands also indicates that large-scale regeneration or reforestation activities following timber harvesting or wildfire may reduce long-term water yields in Ash forests (Kuczera 1985), as young, fast growing forests use more water . . . As the forest regenerates, water yield decreases to a minimum of about half the original yields at 20-30 years and then steadily increases to pre-fire yields at around 150 years . . . Kuczera (1985) also showed that for every one per cent of mature forest converted to regrowth, a decline of 6mm in annual water yield could be expected some 30 years later."
The following information was taken from SSP Technical Report No 5 - A Review of Australian Studies on the Effects of Forestry Practices on Aquatic Values. TJ Doeg and JD Koehn Fisheries Division September 1990.
West Barham Catchment - Otway Ranges
p6 "Mean stream turbibity (over all samples) was significantly higher in the harvested catchments than in the unharvested sub-catchment of similar size. Mean filterable solids were also significantly higher in samples from the larger disturbed catchments, but not in the smaller subcatchments . . . "
p7 "The intensive post-flood sampling upstream of the monitoring sites suggested that poor drainage from compacted areas such as logging roads, snig tracks and log landings, and the influence of land slides and debris torrents were responsible for the elevated turbidity records in the harvested catchments."
p9 "In the Picaninny Creek, the concentration of suspended solids increased marginally following clearfelling, but the increase did not persist. Sediment trapped behind the Picaninny weir showed that total export of suspended material increased from 40kg/ha/annum in the pre-treatment phase to a peak of 90 kg/ha/annum in 1974, followed by a rapid return to pre-treatement levels. Additional water samples taken within the catchment showed that the increase in suspended sediment was caused by run-off from a road crossing, and not from the clearfelled area itself."
p12 "Although water quality parameters were not measured, soil erosion "increased greatly after the logging operations"
p17 "However, suspended sediment concentrations in Strinybark Creek during logging were considerably higher than in other as yet undisturbed catchments, with the actual increases being variable and differing between storms, but in the range of 0 to 300%. Estimates of suspended sediment loads also showed an increase of 150% in the disturbed catchment in the first storm after the start of treatment, but the loads appeared to be reducing towards the end of the logging."
p20 "Following clearing of the eucalypt forest, storm run-off increased by an average of 40% compared to the uncleared eucalypt catchment, and more than doubled in one of the cleared pine forest catchments . . ."
p28 "No changes in flow-weighted mean annual sediment concentrations could be determined in the April Road North Catchments, and only a small increase occurred in the year of logging in the Yerraminnup South catchment (however, larger increases were noted in this year in the control Yerraminnup North catchment). In both cases, buffer strips of 100 m and 50 m respectively had been left along the stream banks . . . "
p29 "Suspended sediment concentrations were elevated by a factor of 3 to 5 in all four catchments following cutting, reaching a maximum two years after logging, then declining in the following year due to lower rainfall and revegetation."
p32 In the Sutton trial, where the buffer strips were completely removed, there was an increase in organic material accession and sand deposition from road surfaces to the stream, particulary at road crossings. This somewhat altered the flow path and channel morphology in the two years following the trial. Some bank collapse was caused by trees falling across the stream channel during logging. Algal blooms were also noted following the trial Logging can also cause increased nutrients entering waterways. Algal blooms are a result of nutrient enrichment which has become a problem throughout Australia. These blooms are caused by a combination of the build up of nutrients and reduced water flows. Excessive algal growth deprives waters of oxygen, resulting in slimy, smelly water which kills fish and causes rashes and eye irritations in humans. Algal blooms can also make fish toxic for human consumption. Runoff from logging (including the application of fertilisers) contributes to algal blooms as does sewage and agricultural effluent. The Following quotes are taken from the Gippsland Regional Forest Agreement;
p113 "Increased stream sedimentation is regarded as a threat to species such as the Spotted Tree Frog and Giant Burrowing Frog. Therefore management prescriptions, including special requirements, are in place for stream buffers, roads and stream crossings in catchments containing these species."
p199 ". . . However, significant data gaps exist on life history and population characteristics for all priority fish species. The most significant gaps relate to spawning behaviour, including induction cues and location of egg laying sites, both within the catchment and within the stream.There is also limited data on cues for migration, preferred larval habitats, and reactions of priority fish species to disturbances, particulary increased sediment and turbidity."
p36 "The behavioural and life history activities of freshwater fish species can be divided into 4 major categories; rearing, resting, spawning and passage. Each of these activities require particular habitat features and are considered seperately."
p37 "Rearing habitat is arguably the most critical habitat type to be preserved while considering flow reductions. It invariably emcompesses the largest area of habitat in a river . . . food sources for riverine fish species can be arbitrarily divided into 2 categories - riparian for terrestrial and instream. Riparian habitat generally harbours diverse and abundant terrestrial insect fauna which commonly contribute as fish food by flying, falling or crawling to the surface water and thereby becoming available to fish."
p38 "Aquatic invertebrates are the major components of the diet of most native freshwater fish species inhabiting Victorian coastal streams. Clean gravels and cobbles in riffles are often the most productive areas in a river for macroinvertebrates . . . Aletrnatively for those rivers or sections of rivers with predominately sand substrates most invertebrate production is usually associated with instream debris such as rocks, twigs and leaves."
p39 "There is very little quantitative information available on the resting habitat requirements of native Australian freshwater fish, or the proportion of time a species rests either daily, seasonally or with age . . . "
p95 "A period of at least 2 years is a minimum estimate of the time required to generate a comprehensive assessment of instream flow material . . ."
p113 “Increased stream sedimentation is regarded as a threat to species such as the Spotted Tree Frog and Giant Burrowing Frog. Therefore management prescriptions, including special requirements, are in place for stream buffers, roads and stream crossings in catchments containing these species”.
p199 “There are no significant data gaps in fish distributional data from the Gippsland Region following the RFA research and survey program. However, significant data gaps exist on life history and population characteristics for all priority fish species. The most significant gaps relate to spawning behaviour, including induction cues and location of egg laying sites, both within the catchment and within the stream. There is also limited data on cues for migration, preferred larval habitats, and reactions of priority fish species to disturbances, particulary increased sediment and turbidity”.
January 2002: Logging coupe near Mount Cudgewa: Coupe No: 12/673/001/0012. This coupe includes old growth as seen in photograph and will be logged in 2003/4. About 85% of this forest will be converted into woodchips.
State of the Environment Report 1988.Victoria’s Inland Waters. Office of the Commissioner for the Environment
Managing Sediment Sources and Movement in Forests: The Forest Industry and Water Quality. November 1999.CooperativeResearch Centre for Catchment Hydrology.
Department of Natural Resources and Environment. Flora and Fauna Program. Freshwater Ecology. Training/Information Course Notes
Rip Rap Issue 4. Fauna and the riparian zone. Native Fish need healthy riparian vegetation
Land For Wildlife. Vol 2, No 5. Native fishes - The Broad-finned Galaxias and Spotted Galaxias.
Land for Wildlife News Vol 3, No 7. A day in the life of a Blackfish
Land for Wildlife News Vol 3, No 9. Mayflies - An insect one day wonder
Threats to Victorian native freshwater fish by JD Koehn and WG O’Connor 1990.
From analysis of 2001/4 Wood Utilisation Plans it would appear that the following catchments will be impacted upon by logging of native forest in the Alps Region of far North East Victoria over the following three years in the Friends of the Earth study area. The following information relates to the approximate number of tributaries likely to be impacted upon with information pertaining to south flowing streams from the Great Dividing Range not included.
It should also be noted that certain coupes from the 2001/4 WUPs were not logged during the year 2001/2. Therefore many creeks and tributaries listed below were spared from the logging this year. WUPs change from year to year, meaning that the following list should be seen as an approximation of the logging to occur in the near furture.
Logging Impacts on Creeks and Streams in the 2001/4 Wood Utilisation Plans.
Lake Hume - 195 tributaries.
Murray River - 1 tribuatary.
1. Murray River (upstream of Lake Hume) - 86 tributaries.
In relation to the 86 Murray River tributaries upstream of Lake Hume (Native fish rarity);
1(a) Corryong Creek catchment - 78 tributaries
1(b) Surveyors Creek - 3 tributaries.
1(c) Buckwood Creek - 1 tributary
1 (d) Cudgewa Creek (Native fish rarity);- 4 tributaries
In relation to the 78 Corryong Creek tributaries (Native fish rarity);
1(a) (a) Nariel Creek catchment - 68 tributaries (Priority creek for stream works - DNRE)
1 (a) (b) Thowgla Creek catchment - 10 tributaries In relation to the 68 Nariel Creek tributaries
1 (a) (a) (a) Wheeler Creek catchment - 58 tributaries
Recent logging in Wheeler Creek catchment.
1 (a) (a) (b) Scrubby Creek East Branch catchment - 8 tributaries
1 (a) (a) (c) Stacey Creek - 2 tributaries
December 2001: This coupe is due to be logged in 2002. Coupe No: 12/700/549/0005. Radio Corner. Mainly Alpine Ash coupe which will be 80% woodchipped. Located on southern headwaters of Wheeler Creek tributary.
In relation to the 58 Wheeler Creek tributaries
1aaaa Wheeler Creek - 20 tributaries
1aaab Shady Creek catchment - 27 tributaries
1aaac Cattleman Creek catchment - 10 tributaries
1aaad Paddy Joy Creek catchment - 1 tributary
December 2001: This coupe is due to be logged in 2003. Coupe No: 12/700/553/0003(One Seven Nine). Mainly Alpine Ash coupe which will be 80% woodchipped. Located on southern headwaters of Wheeler Creek tributary.
2. Mitta Mitta River (upstream of Lake Hume) - 109 tributaries
In relation to the Mitta Mitta River (upstream of Lake Hume)
(Priority creek for stream works - DNRE)
2 a Lake Dartmouth - 85 tributaries
2 b Snowy Creek(Native fish rarity where it meets the Mitta Mitta) 14 tributaries
2c Shady Creek - 4 tributaries
2d Dart River - 6 tributaries
December 2001: Logging coupe located on a tributary of Mount Wills Creek, just off the Omeo Highway in the Mount Wills area. Coupe No: 12/686/507/0009. Five Zero Seven. Between 75-80% of this coupe will end up as woodchips when the area is eventually logged in 2003/4.
In relation to the 85 Lake Dartmouth tributaries;
2aa Mitta Mitta River - 85 tributaries (Priority creek for stream works - DNRE)
In relation to the 85 Mitta Mitta River tributaries.
2aaa Gibbo River - 52 tributaries
2aab Wombat Creek - 20 tributaries
2aac Livingston Creek (Native fish rarity); - 9 tributaries
2aad McGuiness Creek - 2 tributaries
2aae Rush Creek - 2 tributaries
In relation to the 52 Gibbo River tribuaties
2aaaa Sassafras Creek - 8 tributaries
(Regarded by the LLC 1989 as being a High Naturalness Catchment)
September 2001. Coupe: 12/702/506/0002. Sassafras Creek. To be logged in 2002/3. Located on the western tributaries of the headwaters of Sassafras Creek/Gibbo River. Almost 80% of the trees taken from this coupe will end up as woodchips.
2aaab Donnovan Creek - 4 tributaries
2aaac Saltpetre Creek - 8 tributaries
2aaad Straight Running Creek - 3 tributaries
2aaae Buenba Creek - 17 tributaries
2aaaf Morass Creek - 12 tributaries
January 2002: Logging coupe near corner of Pegleg Track and Razorback Spur Road. Coupe No: 12/682/508/0001 Razorback 01. Coupe consists largely of Alpine Ash and is due to be logged in 2002/3. About 80% of the trees from this coupe will end up as woodchips. Pegleg Creek/Wombat Creek catchment which flows into Lake Dartmouth.
In relation to the 12 Morass Creek tributaries
2aaafa Deep Creek - 7 tributaries
2aaafb Front Creek - 3 tributaries (Regarded by the LLC 1989 as being a High Naturalness Catchment)
2aaafc Mount Leinster Creek - 2 tributaries In relation to the 20 Wombat Creek tributaries
September 2001: Gibbo River looking south east from Benambra-Corryong Road near Alpine National Park.
2aaba Christmas Creek - 2 tributaries
2aabb Charleston Creek - 14 tributaries
2aabc Pegleg Creek - 4 tributaries
In relation to the 20 Wombat Creek tributaries
2aaba Christmas Creek - 2 tributaries
2aabb Charleston Creek - 14 tributaries 2aabc
Pegleg Creek - 4 tributaries
In relation to the 14 Snowy Creek tributaries
2ba Mount Wills Creek - 14 tributaries
In relation to the 14 Mount Wills Creek tributaries
2baa Mount Wills Creek - 12 tributaries
2bab Otto Creek - 2 tributaries
December 2001: Failed regeneration in Christmas Creek catchment off Razorback Spur Road.
3. Tallangatta Creek - 7 tributaries
In relation to the Tallangatta Creek
3a Tallangatta Creek - 5 tributaries
In relation to the 5 Tallangatta Creek tributaries
3aa Matthews Creek - 3 tributaries
3ab Rogers Creek - 2 tributaries
3b Tallangatta Creek East Branch - 2 tributaries
3ba Findlay Creek - 2 tributaries
January 2002: Either 001/0010 or 12/668/001/0006 (Walkers West). Located on Cravensville Road this area will be logged in 2002. Between 80-90% of the logs taken from this site will be woodchipped. The coupe is located in the Findlay/Tallangatta Creek catchment and consists of mixed species including some old growth.
4. Ovens River - 1 tributary
“The maximum depth of sediments is less than one metre and is generally less than ten centimetres. However, almost three times as much sediment has been deposited in the Murray arm of the Reservoir as in the Mitta Mitta arm” The River Murray from Mountains to Sea. The Upper Murray Hume Catchment and Snowy Mountains Scheme. Murray Darling Basin Committee.
Enhanced Greenhouse Climate Change and its Potential Effect on Selected Fauna of South-Eastern Australia: A Trend Analysis
Raymond Brereton, Simon Bennett and Ian Mansergh
Biological Conservation 72 (1995) 339-354.
“...The east and south of the study area are dominated by the southern part of the Great Dividing Range. The elevation of this mountain range is generally from 400 to 1000m and encompasses the Australian Alps with Australia’s highest peak, Mount Kosciusko (2228m)...The study area covers the major biomes of south-eastern Australia including the Australian Alps, the south-eastern forests and the Murray Mallee.
Species were generally selected for study from categories of species that have been identified as most at risk from enhanced greenhouse climate change (Peters & Darling, 1985; Mansergh & Bennett, 1989).
The categories are:
(1) Geographically localised taxa. Species with distributions that have been reduced to small isolated habitats.
(2) Genetically impoverished species. Species reduced to small populations wit a small genetic base are less likely to have the genetic diversity needed to adapt to climate change.
(3) Specialised species. Species with narrow habitat requirements vulnerable to changes in the spatial and temporal distribution of their habitats.
(4) Poor dispersers. Species with a poor ability to disperse may be seriously affected by climate change as they will have difficulty in moving to new areas of suitable habitat.
(5) Peripheral and/or disjunct populations. Populations located on the periphery of the range of a species that contracts in response to climate change would be at greater risk than those at the centre. This is also true of species with disjunct ranges. Subpopulations may have become adapted to a more restricted bioclimate.
(6) Montane and alpine species. Species on mountain peaks are typically composed of small and isolated populations and are vulnerable to environmental change. Alpine species may have nowhere to go as their habitats retreat uphill in response to climatic warming.
Species studied (conservation status in Victoria from DCE, 1991). (9 species from 42 studied occur in Alps/NE and are listed below).
Species / Habitat / ConservationStatus / Risk Cat.
Leadbeater’s Possum, Cercartetus lepidus / Wet Forest / Endangered / 3
Mountain Pygmy Possum, Burramys parvus / Alpine / Vulnerable / 6
Long-footed potoroo, Potorous longipes / Wet Forest / Endangered / 3
Broad-toothed rat, Mastacomys fuscus ,Forest / Rare / 3
Sooty Owl, Tyto tenebricosa / Wet Forest / Rare / 3 & 5
Spencer’s skink, Pseudemonia spenceri / Wet Forest / Not Threatened
She-oak skink, Tiliqua casuarinae / Coastal / Alpine Vulnerable / 5
Spotted Tree Frog, Litoria spenceri / Riparian Forest / Endangered / 3
Alpine Tree Frog, Litoria verreauxii alpina / Alpine / Not Threatened
Using the above categories as a basis for selection, 42 species were chosen using the following additional criteria:
(1) Species with distributional range lying mostly within Victoria or Victorian-occurring geographic isolates of species with a wider range in Australia...
(2) Species representing habitats from the range of bioclimatic regions and ecosystems in Victoria including the mallee, coastal, alpine, grasslands, woodlands and wet forest.
(3) Species with a ‘threatened’ conservation status in Victoria. These are most at risk from climate change (Mansergh & Bennett, 1989).
(4) A few common and widespread species were included...
Enhanced greenhouse scenarios
The climate change scenarios used in the study are based on climate modelling carried out by the Climate Impact Group, CSIRO Division of Atmospheric Research, and are current for 1990 (Pittock & Whetton, 1990). Their results indicate decreasing rainfall in south-western Victoria (a peak winter rainfall area) due to a decline in rain-beading westerly winds (Pittock & Whetton, 1990). An increase in rainfall in south-eastern Victoria is predicted due to an increased frequency of easterly winds. The results are less clear for northern Victoria, although a decreased pressure over the continent will favour increased rainfall throughout the year and the decline in westerly winds may reduce winter rainfall. The model suggests an increase in summer rainfall but gives no clear indication for winter. Based on these preliminary studies, Pittock and Whetton (1990) indicate that rainfall may increase by 10% (and possibly 20% in some areas) in the summer rainfall region and may decrease by 10% in winter rainfall areas...
Enhanced greenhouse climate change scenarios used in the study
...Under enhanced greenhouse scenarios a temperature rise of 3 degrees C and anything less than a 10% increase in rainfall will result in increased dryness in south-eastern Australia. This has a dramatic impact on the distribution of the bioclimates of the species used in the study as evidenced by the results of the BIOCLIM predictions.
Species BIOCLIM predictions...
It shows the number of BIOCLIM core and range blocks under the present climate and enhanced greenhouse scenarios ...
The results suggest major cahnges and contractions of range for a large number of species. Of the 42 species studied, 15 have no bioclimate in south-eastern Australia with a 3 degrees Celcius rise in temperature under the most likely rainfall scenario (C) and a further 26 undergo a reduction in bioclimatic range.
The most rapid response to climate change is shown by the bioclimate range of the mountain pygmy-possum, which disappears with a 1 degree C rise in temperature. The bioclimatic ranges of a further five species disappear at +2 degrees Celcius and another nine at +3 degrees C.
The most frequent response to climatic warming is the contraction of the bioclimate range within the present bioclimatic range of the species. At +1 degrees C, 79% of the bioclimates of the species studied showed this response. With a 3 degrees C increase in temperature 45% of species had contracted within the present bioclimatic range.
Almost half of the species’ bioclimates show an altitudinal response to climate change (43% at +2 degrees C). In all cases, this altitudunal shift in bioclimate in response to increasing temperature is upslope to areas of similar bioclimate. A result of this upslope movement of species bioclimates is that at +3 degrees C under the most likely rainfall scenario the elevated areas of the Great Dividing Range form a refuge for between 13 and 16 species bioclimates.
The bioclimates of a number of species also shift latitudinally in response to climatic warming. This response is exhibited by a number of species which inhabit the drier parts of the study area, namely the mallee in the north-west. This type of response is not exclusive. The bioclimates of some species, particularly the mallee species exhibit a latitudinal response in one part of their range and the bioclimates shift to higher altitudes in another part of the range.
The bioclimates of some species become disjunct as they contract into refugia within the former range or shift to refugia outside their current bioclimatic range. At +2 degrees Celcius, 17% of species studied show bioclimatic distributions which have become disjunct; at + 3 degrees Celcius, 12% show this type of response. The decrease in numbers between +2 degrees C and + 3 degrees C is due to the tendency of the bioclimates of species that become disjunct disappearing altogether as the temperature increases...
Responses of environmental types to climate change
Of the two alpine species studied, the bioclimate of one appeared very sensitive to climate change. The bioclimate of the mountain pygmy-possum does not persist to a 1 degree C rise in temperature. The bioclimate of the more widespread alpine tree frog was more tolerant of climate change. It persists to +3 degrees C with a decline in bioclimatic range in the 51-89% category...
Forest species appear to be less affected by climate change. This may reflect the large altitudinal range of forest habitats in south-east Australia. Of the eleven species studied, only two do not persist to +3 degrees C - the helmeted honeyeater inhabits a very small area of riparian forest and the giant gippsland earthworm is restricted to particular soil and moisture regimes in South Gippsland...
The BIOCLIM model has been used in a number of studies to predict the current distributions of fauna. It has been used in studies of the relationships between species and groups of species (Longmore, 1986) to assist paleobotanists to determine past distributions (Williams, 1991) and in studies to predict the distributions of particular species and communities (Busby, 1988; Lindenmayer et al., 1990: Norton & Saxon, 1991). Studies by Busby (1988) and Lindenmayer et al. (1990) have used BIOCLIM to predict the current and future distributions of the long-footed potoroo and Lead-beater’s possum under various climatic wanning scenarios. Busby (1988) suggested that a mass extinction of the presnt alpine species could be expected from a predicted dramatic reduction in area whilst the distribution of cool temperate rainforest changed dramatically.
Finer resolution of analysis than used in this study is now available. The only relevant published study (1.5’ X 1.5’) is provided by Lindenmayer et al. (1990) on Leadbeater’s possum. Interestingly, in the dissected topography of the highlands where a finer resolution grid would suggest more detailed and possibly grossly different outcomes, such is not the case (compare Lindenmayer et al., 1990, Fig. #: with Bennett et al., 1991, Fig. 30).
Changes to the fauna of south-eastern Australia
The results of this study suggest that the effect of climatic warming may be severe. Of the 42 species studies, 24 (57%) are predicted to lose 90-100% of their extant bioclimatic range with a 3 degrees C rise in temperature. The potential rate of loss of species in south-eastern Australia in response to climatic warming is supported by other modelling experiments (eg Busby, 1988). Woodward and Rochefort (1991) modelled vegetation changes on a global scale using plant families. They found that, under climatic warming scanarios of a 3 degree C rise in temperature and both a 10% decrease and increase in precipitation, the number of plant families in eastern Australia declined. They concluded that eastern Australia was one of a number of floristic regions that are most sensitive to environmental change because in this region precipitation currently limits vegetation phenology and productivity. The increased potential for transpiration with an increase in temperature would not be offset by a 10% increase in precipitation.
Species of upland forests appear to be relatively tolerant of climate change, although all undergo some contraction in bioclimatic range with climatic warming. Of the 11 forest species studied, two lost more than 90% of their bioclimatic range with a 2 degree C rise in temperature (helmeted honeyeater and Giant Gippsland earthworm). In contrast, eight of the remaining nine species are predicted to experience a reduction in over 50% of their bioclimatic range of over 50% at +3 degrees C. Only one retains more than 50%. Generally, with increasing temperature it appears that the bioclimatic range of these forest species shifts to the higher elevations of the Great Dividing Range. This shift is a response to cooler temperature determined by altitude.
Species occupying similar habitats tend to show a similar response to climate change. For example, the bioclimate of mallee species generally shifts latitudinally (southward), the ranges of woodland/grassland species contract, while the ranges of species of moister and cooler environments move to higher elevations. We suspect that these predicted changes in distribution can be viewed as analogous to changes in the distribution of natural ecosystems. Our study lends support to some of the predicted responses of biota to climate change (Peters & Darling, 1985).
Habitat fragmentation brought about by human activities has meant that many species now exist as small, isolated and vulnerable populations. In Victoria the greatest loss of natural vegetation has been in those areas used intensively for agriculture (60% of the forest cover in Victoria has been lost: Woodgate and Black, 1988) with a consequent adverse impact on fauna. Habitat destruction and fragmentation are perceived as one of the major threats to the survival of native taxa, irrespective of enhanced greenhouse climate change (DCE, 1992).
Our results indicate that species react differently to climate change and that some species or groups of species are more sensitive to environmental change than others. All species studied (except the eastern bristlebird) undergo a contraction of bioclimatic range. Species or groups of species which occupy restricted habitats or have narrow habitat requirements appear to be very sensitive to climatic warming. Of the 24 species that are predicted to experience a 90-100% reduction of bioclimate at +3 degrees C, nine inhabit mallee habitats, two are alpine species, six occur in coastal habitats and the remainder occupy restricted habitats (eg Helmeted honeyeater, giant Gippsland earthworm, heath mouse, red-tailed black-cockatoo)...
Climate change and planning for wildlife
Our findings suggest that modifications to our long-term, biotic conservation strategy are warranted. Preparation for change should plan to ameliorate the impacts and accomodate for changes in the distribution of fauna and flora. Many of the critical elements needed by wildlife conservation require decades to produce (e.g. tree hollows) so planning must be strategic. This study examined about 5% of Victoria’s vertebrate species but we suspect that these responses are analogous to major shifts in ecotypes. It has been suggested that the flora of eastern Australia is highly sensitive to climate change (Woodward & Rochefort, 1991) and our results suggest that the fauna is similarly sensitive.
An inference of our results is that there will be an increasing need for ex situ conservation and translocations. This may be inevitable, but the authors consider that the most cost-effective mechanism for the conservation of biodiversity in the wild is the appropriate management in the wild. Ex situ conservation may be seen as a failure of ecosystem management yet, positively, the recognition that there is something worthy of conservation. The magnitude of the changes suggested by our study indicates the prudence of ameliorating the effects or more specifically maximising the adaptive opportunities available to fauna, rather than seeking ex situ conservation as a first-order, viable ‘insurance policy’.
The health of existing ecosytems, particularly reserves and remnant vegetation, needs to be enhanced in order to exploit the biological inertia (see Main, 1988) of these systems to assist the amelioration likely from rapid environmental change. The change of each bio-component of each ecosystem (eg plants) remains to be determined. However, it is unlikely that current perceptions of specific flora and fauna communities would remain intact at +3 degrees C. In the context of southeastern Australia, wildlife planners also have to consider not only the potential responses of native fauna but also the responses of a range of exotic species. For example, environmental weeds (>550 species; Carr et al., 1992) are a current and potential ‘time bomb’ with the capacity to change existing ecological communities irrespective of the likely matrix of changes under enhanced greenhouse climate change.
January 2002: Recent logging coupe - Gibb Range Road
The results of this study were used to assess the effectiveness of Victoria’s reserve system in coping with climate change, to identify faunal refugia and areas where conservation reserves are inadequate or could be enhanced. A system of statewide biolink corridors linking refugia has been presented in a major statutory document to conserve the biodiversity of Victoria - The Draft Flora and Fauna Guarantee Stratgy (DCE, 1992). The changes to biodiversity inferred from our study of the enhanced greenhouse effects will hopefully promote more research and refinements to our understandings, but, more importantly provoke more on ground conservation measures”.
Warnings from the Bush
The impact of climate change on the nature of Australia Climate Action Network Australia
Prepared by Anna Reynolds
Forests - page 10,11
“In 1788 Australia had 70 million hectares of forest. Today 25 percent of these forests remain relatively intact and the rest have been either removed or affected by logging (Pittock and Wratt, 2001). Climate change poses an additional and prevasive threat to Australian forests in a number of ways:
Hotter temperatures and drier conditions projected for the south of Australia will see an increase in the intensity of forest fires (IPCCb, 2001; Williams et al., 2001).
Global warming may already be creating weather conditions that increase the intensity of bushfires. In 2001 much of eastern Australia was drier than normal (WMO, 2001) which, combined with extremely hot days, created tinderbox conditions in forested areas of NSW in early 2002. This record breaking fire season burned forty-four national parks including 60 percent of the Royal National Park and nearly half of the Blue Mountains National Park (NPWS, 2002). The intensity of the fires threatened many plant species. For example, Banksia plants in the Royal National Park are killed by excessive fire and their numbers declined by 90 percent as a result of the last intense fire in the Park in 1994 (The Australian, 2002). While many Australian forests need some level of fire to trigger regeneration, intense fires or fires that occur too frequently cause irreversible damage.
National bushfire records are not kept in Australia, but in Canada and the United States records for the past 20 years show a substantial increase in forest fires corresponding with an increase in average temperatures over the same period (IPCCb, 2001).
Changes to forests’ preferred climate:
The preferred temperature range of 25 percent of the more than 800 Eucalypt species found in Australia is less than 1 degree C, 53 percent have a range of less than 3 degrees C, and 73 percent have a range of less than 5 degrees C mean temperature (Hughes et al., 1996).
This means that climate change of a few degrees may place many Eucalypt species in conditions that do not suit them. Some Eucalypt species with a narrow temperature range may be able to exist in warmer conditions, but it may not be ideal for them to thrive or compete with other species (Pittock and Wratt, 2001; Hughes et al., 1996).
For example, of the 58 Eucalypt species in the Kimberley, nearly one third are endemic to the region (Wheeler et al, 1992). From the database compiled by Hughes (et al., 1996), the average temperature range of the endemic species is 3 degrees C, and average ration of current high to low rainfall limits of the endemic species is a relatively low 1.68. These species, unique to the Kimberley, will be vulnerable to the changes predicted for temperature and rainfall, which are well outside these preferred ranges (CSIRO, BoM, 2001).
As the climate becomes less suitable for some types of trees or some types of forest, competition between species will change. Those trees that are more suited to the new climate, with a seed dispersal system that allows movement, may come to dominate. For example, in south-western West Australia, Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata) forests may contract further to the south west and be replaced by more open Wandoo (Eucalypts wandoo) woodlands (Arnold, 1988).
Global warming is assisting ozone depletion because greenhouse gases in the upper atmosphere (where the ozone layer is) have a cooling effect. This cooling in the upper atmosphere speeds up the effectiveness of ozone depleting gases. Ozone depletion affects southern Australia in particular by increasing ultraviolet radiation. This radiation damages the DNA and membranes of many forest species, reducing plant growth and affecting reproduction and distribution. Trees are more severely affected by ozone damage than weed species (reviewed in Howden et al., 1999).
Increased levels of carbon dioxide will probably trigger additional growth in some forests (mostly those on fertile soil), but this growth may be limited by the lower rainfall levels predicted in the future and in infertile conditions. While forests can absorb additional CO2, there is a saturation point for forests, beyond which they will not act as sinks and start to emit CO2 back into the atmosphere. Photosynthetic rates and water use may be more efficient with higher CO2 levels, but these benefits could be offset by increased CO2 causing a lower nutrient content in trees (Lawler et al., 1997, Kanowski, 2001, reviewed in Howden et al, 1999).
Forests are already threatened by pests and disease, like the fungus Phytophthora cinnamoni which is causing dieback in south western and coastal eastern Australia. It is likely that increases in temperature or CO2 levels will be more favourable for the spread of this disease (Main, 1988; reviewed in Howden et al, 1999).
Rivers and agriculture in NSW and Victoria - page 17
River ecosystems provide essential water resources for farming communities. South-eastern Australian rivers are already under stress with great demand for water supply to the key national food growing regions in NSW and Victoria.
CSIRO research indicates a clear future trend towards decreased winter and spring rainfall across much of southern Australia and decreased snow levels. Both of these climate conditions are important for recharging Australian rivers such as the Murray Darling (CSIRO 2001). This decrease in rainfall will see flows into rivers reduced by up to 30 percent by 2030 for the Ovens, Goulburn and Macquarie Rivers, and by 2050 for the Murray-Darling (Hassall & Assoc, 1998; Pittock et al, 1997; Pittock & Wratt 2001).
Alpine - page 19
Global warming is already affecting the alpine regions of the world. Warming has been associated with upward movement of some plant populations by 1-4m per decade on mountain tops, and some loss of plants that formerly were restricted to high elevations (IPCCb, 2001).
Alpine plants and animals are restricted to an area between the treeline and the mountain summit. In Australia there are more than 250 species of alpine plants that grow only in this restricted habitat (La Trobe University, 2001). As Australia continues to warm, the alpine environment and its plants and animals will need to move further up mountains to retain the desirable climate conditions. However as Australia’s mountains are low, climate change may leave the species with nowhere to go.
December 2001: This coupe is due to be logged in 2002. Coupe No: 12/700/549/0007 Steep Corner 02. Mainly Alpine Ash coupe which will be 80% woodchipped. Located on southern headwaters of Wheeler Creek tributary.
Change is already occurring in Australia’s alpine regions. The treeline near Mount Hotham in Victoria has moved up forty metres to an area that has not had any trees for the past twenty-five years. As the trees move into this area, alpine plants can be displaced (La Trobe University, 2001).
With a small change in the global average temperature, the alpine environment of Mount Bogong in Victoria will need to move up the mountain from 1750 metres to 1900 metres. If warming continues these species will have nowhere to move, as this mountain is only 1940 metres high (Busby, 1988; Mansergh, 2001).
Australia’s highest peak, Mount Kosciuszko, is 2228 metres high and the alpine environment begins at 1800 metres. With climate change this alpine environment will need to rise to 2000 metres to remain within a suitable climate (Busby, 1988).
January 2002: Old growth stump. Gibb Range Road - Reedy Creek East Branch/Cudgewa Creek catchment.
Climate change will see an 18-66 percent reduction in the area of snow cover by 2030 and a 39-96 percent reduction by 2070 (Pittock and Wratt, 2001). With a small change in temperature the only places in Australia that will retain alpine ecosystems will be the tops of 6 mountains (Busby 1988). A 3 degree C rise, predicted for the next 100 years, would raise the snowline level above the highest peaks in the Alps (Coyne, 2001)”.
The following information about the major woodchippers of the North East forests came from corporate extracts from the Australian Securities Commission.
December 2001: Logtruck heading north on Omeo Highway from Mount Wills.
The major woodchipper of the North East is the Neville Smith Group Pty Ltd.
The Neville Smith Group Pty Ltd formed on 2/4/74. Prior to the company adopting its present name it was called Rich Timber Investments Pty Ltd from 6/7/72, Hy-Peak Sales from 18/9/57 and Furex Pty Ltd from 29/8/50. The current registered office for Neville Smith Group Pty Ltd is Level 2, 25 Dorcas Street, South Melbourne, Vic, 3205.
Present Directors of the company include Kenneth Last (The Forth, Tasmania), Richard Neville Smith Melbourne), Christopher Neville Smith (Melbourne) and James Richard Neville Smith (Elwood). Appointed auditor for the firm is Harper Wootton (Level 19, 500 Collins Street, Melbourne. The Ultimate Holding Company for Neville Smith Group Pty Ltd is W. Billing and Son Pty Ltd of 27 Capital Drive, Dandenong South, 3175.
Neville Smith Group Pty Ltd has a share structure of 11000 Class A Shares and 220 Class B Shares.
Class A shares are owned by;
International Forest Resources* Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, Melbourne) - 500 shares (4.54%)
Falcon Nominees No 1* Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, Melbourne) - 8000 shares (72.73%)
Ingle Smith Investments* Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, Melbourne) - 1000 shares (9.09%)
Tara Nominees* Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, Melbourne) - 1000 shares (9.09%)
December 2001: Gippsland FMA: Stony Creek/Buenba Creek. Coupe: 13/711/505/0003?. About 90% of this coupe will end up as woodchips.
James Richard Neville Smith - 500 shares. (4.54%)
Class B shares are owned by;
International Forest Resources Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, Melbourne) - 10 shares (4.54%)
Falcon Nominees No 1 Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, Melbourne) - 160 shares (72.73%)
Ingle Smith Investments Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, Melbourne) - 20 shares (9.09%)
Tara Nominees Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, Melbourne) - 20 shares (9.09%)
James Richard Neville Smith (Elwood) - 10 shares. (4.54%)
* International Forest Resources Pty Ltd formed on 22/3/2000. Prior to the company adopting its present name it was called International Forest Resources Ltd from 25/7/86, and Perroco Ltd from 1/5/86. The current registered office for International Forest Resources Pty Ltd is 129 York Street, South Melbourne, Vic, 3205.
Present Directors of the company include Kenneth Last (The Forth, Tasmania), Gaye Reeves (Yarraville), Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne). Appointed auditor for the firm is Harper Wootton (Level 18, 500 Collins Street, Melbourne. Previous Ultimate Holding Company for International Forest Resources Pty Ltd was Falcon Nominees No 1 Pty Ltd of 27 Capital Drive, Dandenong South, 3175.
International Forest Resources Pty Ltd has a share structure of 1000000 ORD Shares all owned by Kenneth Last* (also a director of Neville Smith Group Pty Ltd).
* Falcon Nominees No 1 Pty Ltd formed on ? The current registered office for Falcon Nominees No 1 Pty Ltd is 129 York St, South Melbourne, Vic, 3205.
Present Directors of the company include Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne), Christopher Neville Smith (Melbourne), and James Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne). Appointed auditor for the firm is Harper Wootton (500 Collins Street, Melbourne. Ultimate Holding Company for Falcon Nominees No 1 Pty Ltd is W. Billing and Son Pty Ltd of 27 Capital Drive, Dandenong South, 3175.
Falcon Nominees No 1 Pty Ltd has a share structure of 1002 ORD Shares.
Shares are owned by;
Freda Smith (Toorak) - 1 share. (0.1%)
Richard Neville Smith (Toorak) - 1 share. (0.1%)
Mark Fund Co Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, South Melbourne) - 480 shares. (47.9%)
W. Billing and Son Pty Ltd (25 Dorcas Street, South Melbourne) - 520 shares. (51.89%)
* Ingle Smith Investments Pty Ltd formed on ?
Prior to the company adopting its present name it was named as Falcon Nominees No 3 Pty Ltd. The current registered office for Ingle Smith Investments Pty Ltd is 129 York St, South Melbourne, Vic, 3205.
Recent log coupe just off Wheeler Creek Road.
Present Directors of the company include Beverley Smith (Camberwell), Barbara Stevens (Balwyn) and Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne).
Ingle Smith Investments Pty Ltd has a share structure of 30 Class A Shares and 1000 Class B Shares.
Class A Shares are owned by;
Anne Breadmore (Armadale) - 2 shares
Beverley Smith (Camberwell) - 2 shares
Graham Smith (Toorak) - 2 shares
Pamela Harris (South Melbourne) - 2 shares
Warren Smith (Hawthorn East) - 2 shares
Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne) - 12 shares
Meredith Harkness (Toorak) - 2 shares
Kaye Joubert (Malvern) - 2 shares
Class B Shares are owned by;
Anne Breadmore (Armadale) - 100 shares
Beverley Smith (Camberwell) - 100 shares
Graham Smith (Toorak) - 100 shares
Barbara Stevens (Balwyn) - 100 shares
Pamela Harris (South Melbourne) - 100 shares
Warren Smith (Hawthorn East) - 100 shares
Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne) - 100 shares
Meredith Harkness (Toorak) - 100 shares
Kaye Joubert (Malvern) - 100 shares
Terry Ingle Smith (Thargomindah Qld)- 100 shares
* Tara Nominees Pty Ltd formed on ?The current registered office for Tara Nominees Pty Ltd is 129 York St, South Melbourne, Vic, 3205.
Present Directors of the company include Terry Ingle Smith (Paradise Point Qld), Barbara Stevens (Balwyn), Pamela Harris (South Melbourne) and Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne).
Tara Nominees Pty Ltd has a share structure of 2 Class A Shares and 300 Class B Shares.
Class A Shares are jointly owned by;
Terry Ingle Smith (Paradise Point Qld),
Pamela Harris (South Melbourne)
Barbara Stevens (Balwyn)
Class B Shares are owned by;
Teke Pty Ltd/Garrots Pty Ltd - Launceston Tasmania - 100 shares
Pamela Harris (South Melbourne) - 100 shares
Barbara Stevens (Balwyn) - 100 shares
W. BILLING AND SON PTY LTD formed on 28/6/33. Its’ registered office is 129 York Street, South Melbourne, 3205.
Present Directors are; Christopher Neville Smith (Melbourne), Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne) and James Neville Smith (Elwood). Appointed Auditor for the firm is Harper Wootton, 500 Collins Street, Melbourne, 3000. Ultimate Holding Company for W. Billing and Son Pty Ltd is MARK FUND Co PTY LTD of 27 Capital Drive, Dandenong South.
W. Billing and Son have a share structure of 1702 shares.
Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne) - 89 shares - 5.23%
Ingle Credits Pty Ltd** - 425 shares - 24.97%
Mark Fund Co Pty Ltd** - 1188 shares - 69.80%
**MARK FUND Co Pty Ltd Mark Fund Co. Pty Ltd formed on 30/3/73. Registered office is 129 York Street, South Melbourne, Vic, 3205.
Present directors are;
Christopher Neville Smith (Melbourne),Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne) and James Neville Smith (Elwood). Mark Fund Co. Pty Ltd have a share structure of 6 shares.
Christopher Neville Smith (Melbourne) - 1 share - 16.67%
Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne) - 4 shares - 66.67%
James Neville Smith (Elwood) - 1 share - 16.67%
**Ingle Credits Pty Ltd Ingle Credits Pty Ltd formed in 28/7/60. Registered office is 129 York Street, South Melbourne, 3205.
Present Directors are, Christopher Neville Smith (Melbourne) , Richard Neville Smith (Melbourne) and James Neville Smith (Elwood). Ultimate Holding Company for Ingle Credits Pty Ltd is Falcon Nominees No 1 Pty Ltd.
Share structure for Ingle Credits Pty Ltd is 5150 shares.
All shares in Ingle Credits are owned by Mark Fund Co Pty Ltd.
Recent logging near Wild Boar Track in the Straight Running Creek catchment.
MT. BEAUTY TIMBER INDUSTRIES PTY LTD: This company was formerly known as Abboatcourt Pty Ltd and formed 27/5/85. It took on its current name on 27/6/85. Its registered office is; 1 Embankment Drive, Mount Beauty, 3699.
Current directors are; Victor Addinsall, Raymond Addinsall, Bruce Addinsall - all of Mount Beauty and Neil Addinsall of Tin Can Bay Qld. The company has a share structure of two ordinary shares, currently owned by Raymond Addinsall and Neil Addinsall.
MOUNT BEAUTY TIMBERS PTY LTD:
This company has been operating since 1960. Its registered office is; 1 Embankment Drive, Mount Beauty, 3699.
Current directors are;
Victor Addinsall, Raymond Addinsall, Bruce Addinsall and Neil Addinsall.
The company has a share structure of 559900 shares. 11 of those shares are owned by Raft Pty Ltd. 559889 shares are owned by Addinsall Holdings Pty Ltd.
Raft Pty Ltd formed on 10/11/75. It was formerly known as W.F. Addinsall Investments Pty Ltd from 29/9/70. Its registered office is; Level 2, 520 Swift Street, Albury, 2640.
Directors include Raymond Addinsall and Beryl Addinall. The company has a structure of 2 ORD shares, 1 each owned by Raymond Addinsall and Alfred Armstrong.
Addinsall Holdings Pty Ltd has a registered office at Level 2, 520 Swift Street, Albury 2640.
Its directors are; Raymond Addinsall and Neil Addinsall.
It has a share structure of 562800 ordinary shares and 50 4% Non Cumulative Preference shares.
The ORD shares are owned by N.L. Addinsall Pty Ltd (281400 shares) and Raft Pty Ltd (281400 shares).
The 4% NCP shares are owned by Raymond Addinsall (25 shares) and Neil Addinsall (25 shares).
CORRYONG TIMBERS PTY LTD This company formed 17/6/92. Its registered office is ‘St Albans House’ c/- Wood Johnston Pty Ltd 120 Macleod St, Bairnsdale.Its principle place of business is Thougla Road Corryong.
Current directors are; Douglas Campbell (Bruthen), David Blair (Bruthen) and William Blair (Corryong). The company has a share structure of 3 shares with each of the directors owning one share each.
December 2001: Christmas Creek/Middle Spur: Coupe: 12/684/501/0006. Middle Spur. To be logged in 2003/4. Within Mount Wills Historic Area, Protect historic features, Omeo Highway Prescription. Almost 80% of this coupe will end up as woodchips.
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